Norwegian researchers have been given the go-ahead to shoot up to 60 dolphins.
They hope to find out more about the diet of the Atlantic white-sided and white-beaked species.
Conservationists prevented a similar experiment last year and say they will try to stop it again.
They believe the research will be used to blame dolphins for falling fish stocks.
The researchers say they just want to find out how many pollutants the animals are exposed to and secure their future.
The research could begin later this year and is expected to take up to three years to complete.
Asmund Bjordal, a research director at the Institute for Marine Research which will carry out the study, told Ananova government permission may have been rejected before for political reasons.
He said: "Permission has now been granted but I am not sure whether it will go ahead this year - it depends on the resources we have."
Sue Fisher, of the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, believes the research is just an excuse: "It is not acceptable. These kills will be horrible and cruel. It is a cover for securing some dolphin meat for fishermen and the ridiculous claim that dolphins are out competing humans for fish."
Mr Bjordal denied this, but when asked if the fall in fish stocks was due to over-fishing, said: "It is a combination of climate change, predation by sea mammals, fish-on-fish predation and of course over-fishing."
Thursday 25th April 2002